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MEMO 2016

Zsigmondy, Richard Adolf (Wien, 1 April 1865 - Göttingen, 24 September 1929) is called father of colloid chemistry. In the year 1903,  Zsigmondy and the physicist at Zeiss Optical Works in Jena, F.W. Siedentopf, constructed an ultramicroscope operating on the principle of Tyndall effect. This ultramicroscope made it possible for Zsigmondy to study colloids, the distribution and characteristics of particles sized below 500 nm in liquids. It was also Zsigmondy R. A. who invented the membrane filter for the separation of bacteria sized particles, and the ultrafilter, too. For his inventive work, in 1925 he was awarded with Nobel Prize in chemistry. A crater with 70 km diameter on the Moon is named after him.

After his university years and the advanced trainings Jenner, Edward Anthony (Berkeley, Gloucestershire, 17 May 1749 - ibidem, 26 January 1823) went on in his professional career as a family doctor, a surgeon in his birthplace area. In 1788 he was elected a fellow member to the Royal Society for the novelty he observed that it is the cuckoo hatchling that evicts the eggs and the chicks from the nest of foster parents. In May 1796 - around twenty years after the promising attempts of his professional predecessors - he inoculated an 8 year old boy with pus taken from lesions on the hands of a dairymaid infected with cowpox. Jenner did it twice within two months to prove that protection against cowpox helps in the development of protection against smallpox. He confirmed his scientific attempts in his medical practice and, as an inventor of vaccination-immunization he opened a chapter in the history of science.  

By profession Gauguin, Paul (Paris, 7 June 1848 - Marquises Islands, 3 May 1903) was a stockbroker who, later devoted himself to art without formal artistic trainings. His self-education raised him to become a distinctive character of postimpressionism and symbolism. As a painter and sculptor, he turned away from prevailing trends in contemporary art and by the bold lines, the natural and colourful unique figures used in his works, he attracted the attention of fellows representing the new artistic approach, impressionism. Subsequently, the fourth exhibition of impressionists in 1879 gave Gauguin the opportunity to show his works among those of Camille Pissarro, Edgar Degas, Claude Monet. His friend in art and unrestrained partner in debates Vincent van Gogh too, had great influence on his pictures. In 1891 Gauguin escaped from the European establishment of his time to Tahiti and, after a short return to Europe he moved farther, to the Marquises Islands for living and working there until his death. []

von Leibniz, Gottfried Wilhelm (Leipzig, 1 July 1646 - Hanover, 14 November 1716) german philosopher and mathematician, was born just in reach of the last two years of the devastating Thirty Years' War, and died two years after the end of the War of the Spanish Succession. He was almost 12 years old when also taught himself far advanced latin and some greek. Later, he graduated with a bachelors degree (BA) from the University of Leipzig in 1663, with his thesis De Principio Individui (On the Principle of the Individual). Still, after completing his subsequent studies (in law and philosophy), referring to his young age, he was refused the doctorate in law at Leipzig. Thus, with disappointment in 1666, he left forever his birthplace Leipzig. Although he received his doctorate at the University of Altdorf, yet, through a short period of professional practice, he left this university, too. Thereafter, he visited many European cities to collect human knowledge as much as he can. The skills and knowledge he gained are reflected in his professional correspondence (with more than 600 correspondents). His works, like the metaphysical 'Monad' theory, the forerunners of computer solutions the 'Calculus' and the 'Binary Number' systems, the papers in mechanics, geology, philosophy, linguistics and history, all, made him the most powerful scientist of his time. As a recognition of his work he was elected a fellow of the Academie Française (Paris) and the Royal Society (London).

Avogadro, Amedeo (Torino/Italy, 9 August 1776 - ibidem, 9  July 1856) physicist and chemist, one of the founders of the discipline physical chemistry. Born in the family of a distinguished lawyer, later he completed his studies in ecclesiastical law and received his doctorate at age 20. However, his enthusiasm to physics and mathematics made him to change career, and turned to teaching in physics. Recognizing his talent, he was invited to professor in mathematical physics at the University of Turin. Supported by mathematical calculations, his chemical and physical experiments on thermal expansion of liquids and gases inspired him to construct his molecular hypothesis, called Avogadro law (1811). His work was negligated until after his death, when, Joseph L. Gay-Lussac's intercession helped the Avogadro's number (number of molecules in a gram molecule = 6.02214199 x 10^23) enter everyday scientific practice.

According to his teachers' at the elementary school Fadrusz, János (Bratislava, 2 September 1858 - Pest, 26 October 1903) was considered average at talents. Born to a poor family, for livelihood reasons he was sent to a locksmith workshop, for apprenticeship. Early in this period of life his diligence and creativity turned evident; the artistic carvings and porcelain paintings all, helped him in attracting professional attention. Instead of accepting the offer of Herend Porcelain Manufactury, he went on sculpting figures and soon, a master sculptor at the Vienna Academy took notice of his work. He received a grant of the Pozsony {today Bratislava} Savings Bank and from 1886 he studied at the Vienna Academy of Fine Arts. His work -Christ on the Cross, 1891- won him several awards and also the long-awaited acclaim.
Further memorial works: Maria Theresa memorial* {upon invitation of Pozsony city}, Matthias memorial {Kolozsvár (today Cluj Napoca) artistic competition; winner of the first prize}. Plaster copy of the latter won the Grand Prix at World's Fair in Paris (1900).
Other remarkable works: Wesselényi memorial* {Zilah (today Zalau)},  Tisza Lajos statue {Szeged}.
 * destroyed in history of 20th century

Arthur (New York, 17 October 1915 - Roxbury, Connecticut 10 February 2005) was born in a coat manufacturing immigrant family. The family lost almost all their entire fortune in the financial crash of 1929. So, the young Miller undertook any work to cover the cost of attending a university. The inception of writing skills was shown at the University College of Michigan, by his prize-winning first drama titled 'No Villain'. His drama titled 'All My Sons' (1947) brought him the first public success; it was running on Broadway for a year and earned a Tony Award for the Best Author. The iconic stage work (1949) titled 'Death of a Salesman' raised Miller in the height of Pulitzer Prize. His unlucky first marriage (with Marilyn Monroe) was followed by a second (with an Austrian photographer), the latter blessed by children, albeit he hardly accepted the fact of having a child born with Down's disease. After he had buried his third wife, Miller's choice to marry a young painter was crossed by his death. Miller's works are unfailing source of stage and film adaptations throughout the world.

Wegener, Alfred Lothar (Berlin, 1 November 1880 - Greenland, ... ? November 1930) received his Ph.D. as an astronomer (Berlin Universität, 1904). Still, his career was turned to his former dream of geophysics and the then-evolving scientific area of meteorology and climatology. Pursuing this change, his work supported these new fields of science with basic knowledge. In his book on "The Origin of Continents and Oceans" (1915), he suggested the existence (cca. 300 million years ago) of an ancient supercontinent 'Pangaea', which, due to break up movements ('plate tectonics', 'continental drift') gave rise to continents of our days. He was first in applying balloons to study upper atmosphere movements; the observations collected in his book titled "The Thermodynamics of the Atmosphere"  became standard of the field, in Germany. As a tutor at Marburg University, he was invited several times to join Greenland expeditions for the study of polar atmosphere and its movements. In 1914 he was drafted in the army of The Great War (WW I). After recovery from war wounds, he was appointed to participate in military weather forecasting service. Following The Great War, he returned to Marburg however, few options were given there for professional advancement. Consequently, in 1924 he moved to Austria to take the job announced for a Professor in Meteorology and Geophysics, at the Universität Graz.
He guided his last Greenland expedition in November, 1930. One day, on the way between two camps, he (and his two Companions) had met unexpected low temperature and frigid wind making them exhausted. Thereafter, a long search was needed to find them at last. That's why no exact date is assigned to his early death.

Eisenstaedt, Alfred {Dirschau, W-Prussia (today Tczew, Poland) 6 December 1898 - Oak Bluffs, Massachusetts, 23 Augusztus 1995} was a German-American photojournalist, one of the greatest of his profession. His father had a department store and they lived in the Imperial Germany. He was 14 when received his first camera (Eastman Kodak Folding Camera + roll films). From that time on his life became inseparable from the art of photography. After secondary school (Hohenzollern Gymnasium, Berlin), during The Great War he served in the German Army (1916-1918); both his legs were wounded. After war, in the 1920s he worked as belt and button salesman, for livelihood. Also, it was this period of time he started to work as freelance photographer. His idol to follow was the pioneering documentary photographer Erich Salomon. In 1929 he became full-time photographer (Berlin), and international acclaim was shortly brought by moments caught by his 35mm Leica camera. In 1935 he migrated to the USA. In 1936 he was one of the first four photojournalists employed at the then-recently-started Life magazine. He worked there until 1972. His life achievement comprises more than 2500 photo-essays, some photo-anthologies and also, exhibitions.

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