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MEMO 2017

The poet, novelist and playwriter Milne, Alan Alexander (Kilburne-London, 18 January 1882 - Hartfield-Sussex, 31 January 1956) was born to a Scottish family. During university years at Trinity College (Cambridge) his writing skills came easily to light by his contributions to the student magazine 'Granta'. The appointment to the assistant editor position at the British satirical magazine 'Punch' helped him to become a prolific poet-and-writer of the 1920s. 
He was the first in writing books for children. Some of his well-known children's poetry and books are: When We Were Very Young, Now We Are Six, Winnie-the-Pooh.
"Promise me you'll always remember: You're braver than you believe, and stronger than you seem, and smarter than you think" (Milne, A.A.)

Mendeleev, Dmitri Ivanovich (Tobolsk, 8. February 1834 - Saint Petersburg, 2 February 1907) came into a family with 17 children. He was 13 when father, the principal of the local high school, passed away. One year later, after the glass factory headed by his mother had burned down, the family moved to Saint Petersburg. Facing his tuberculosis diagnosed at age 21, Mendeleev went on persistently in his studies at the Pedagogical Institute of Saint Petersburg. After graduation he fulfilled his teaching duties in Crimea, however, he returned very soon to Saint Petersburg for completing his MA degree at the University. Later, as University teacher in chemistry he spent two years in Heidelberg by working with  R.W. Bunsen (studies on intermolecular cohesion, spectroscopy laws).
Milestones with international recognition in Mendeleev's career are: Organic Chemistry (study book, 1861), Professor and Chair of the Institute for General Chemistry at the University of Saint Petersburg (1867), The Principles of Chemistry (study book, 1869), The Relation between the Properties and Atomic Weights of Elements (1869), The Periodic Table of Elements (1889).
Among others, he called for exploring Donetsk coal fields and Caucasian oil fields, for developing soda production in Russia.

Bovet, Daniel (Neuchâ
tel, 23 March 1907 - Rome, 8 April 1992) graduated from the University of Geneva in 1927. His soaring interest in sciences was topped up in 1929 by reaching Ph.D. degree in zoology and comparative anatomy.
Next locale of his further studies became the Pasteur Institute in Paris. In 1937 he managed to find an antihistamine substance efficient when administered in allergy reactions. By 1944 pyrilamine discovered by Bovet, became a drug. In 1947 he was invited to Rome to establish a
Laboratory of Therapeutic Chemistry at the  Istituto Superiore di Sanità. Soon he moved to Rome and took up Italian citizenship, too. This time his interest turned to muscle relaxants needed for safe surgery. Among curare alternatives he synthesized, it was gallamine and succinylcholine that proved safety and efficacy as demanded.
Since 1964 he took the Chair of Pharmacology at the University of Sassari, Italy. Between 1971 and 1982 he was appointed Professor of Psychobiology at the University of Rome La Sapienza.

Charlemagne or, Charles I or, Charles the Great [Herstal (today in Belgium), 2 April 742 - Aachen (today in Germany), 28 January 814] was born in the family of Pepin the Short, the first Frankish king of the
Carolingians following the era of the Merovingians. Centuries later after the fall of the Roman Empire it was Charlemagne who brought into being the Frank Empire in size comparable to that of the Byzantine Empire. Left alone as ruling king after the death of his brother Carloman I or, Karlmann (771), Charlemagne united his brothers' and his own separated in 768 kingdoms and further extended them by campaigns in Western Europe (with northern Spain and northern Italy included).
As emperor, he promoted state organization issues, gave support to education and arts. The deal with the Papacy (Pope Adrian I) and the military assistance he provided, enhanced Western Church to evolve. His coronation in 800 was administered by Pope Leo III. 

After highschool years in Cleveland, Abel, John Jacob  (Cleveland-Ohio, 19 May 1857 - Baltimore-Maryland, 26 May 1938) continued his studies at the University of Michigan. Although facing financial difficulties still, he graduated with success in 1883. The apprenticeship program of the years 1884-1890 implied studies abroad: 2 years in Leipzig (physiology, histology, pharmacology, chemistry), 2 years in Strasbourg (MD diploma received in 1888), 1888-1889 winter in Wien (postgradual clinical studies), 1889-1890 in Berne (experimental pharmacology, biochemistry), 1890 in Leipzig (physiological chemistry).
From January 1891 he became lecturer at the University of Michigan and the ultimate targets of his interest were pharmacology and physiological chemistry. As for his view, for translating
knowledge on experimental substances into clinical practice, a prior exploration of substance composition and structure is required.
He played prominent role in launching the scientific journals Journal of Experimental Medicine (1896), Journal of Biological Chemistry (1905), Journal of Pharmacology and Experimental Therapeutics (1909).   
His professional milestones are: "blood-pressure-raising" extract from adrenal medulla > epinephrine monobenzoyl derivative (1897-1899); "vividiffusion apparatus" for patients with renal insufficiencies > forerunner of artificial kidney (1913);  insulin crystallized (1925); tetanus toxin and the pathomechanism of its action.

Significant economist of the 20th century Keynes, John Maynard (Cambridge, 5 June 1883 - East Sussex, 21 April 1946) studied at Eton College, thanks to a scholarship gained in 1897. This period served for strengthening his devotion to mathematics and philosophy. Another scholarship obtained in 1902 helped him continue studies at King's College (Cambridge). By this time he was so fascinated by philosophy, that economics even if highly recommended by his tutor, fell quite far from his view of interest. He completed mathematics in 1904 (BA). The following two years were spent at the university for further studies in philosophy and also for informal lessons in economics; he took civil service exams in 1906.
In the period 1906-1908 he worked as a clerk (India Office), then returned to Cambridge for studies on probability theory. In 1915 he was offered by the British government a post at the Treasury for arranging credit terms between Britain and the Allies and, for purchasing scarce currencies.
Representing British Treasury in 1919, Keynes participated at the Peace Conference (Versailles), an event of deep impression on his later professional career. He was against the enormous compensation burden loaded on the defeated German economy, since also deleterious in consequences to other countries. His arguments were neglected.
He opposed restoration of monetary gold standard (1925), forecasted the Great Depression and, he was convinced that borrowing money by governments for injecting it into economies results in prosperity allowing payback of loans. To his thoughts, low wages result in low spending that leads to unemployment and to further low spending. 
He withdrew from civil service and continued as lecturer and researcher (Cambridge).
Professional milestones: Indian Currency and Finance (1913), The Economic Consequences of the Peace (1919), A Treatise on Probability (1921), The Economic Consequences of Mr Churchill (1925), Treatise of Money (1930), The General Theory of Unemployment, Interest and Money (1936).
He urged to generate a global currency and, supervised the rise of the institutions World Bank and International Monetary Fund.

Jung, Carl Gustav (Thurgau-Switzerland, 26 July 1875 - Zurich-Switzerland, 6 June 1961) was born the fourth and only surviving child of a clergyman father and a mother suffering from deep depression. A fighting incident with a classmate made the introverted child Jung more helpless with his personality disorders. For months as a result, he did not go to school. Still, his multifaceted interest toward medicine, spiritual phenomena, philosophy, religion, literature, prompted him go further in his studies. In 1900 he completed medical studies and graduated from the Universität Basel.
Ph.D. level was reached in 1903 (‘On the Psychology and Pathology of So-Called Occult Phenomena). In the period of 1905-1913 he gave lectures in Psychiatry (Universität Zurich). His six-year-friendship with Sigmund Freud ran aground in 1912 due to the emerging professional dissent between the two experts ("Psychology of the Unconscious").
To overcome the professional isolation endured during World War I, the years 1920-1930 were spent for travelling to give lectures. The last period of his life was dedicated to his thoughts summarized in written publications.
Professional milestones: Jung's school of analytical psychology; personality profiling; recognizing collective unconscious; concept of introversion-extroversion; defining archetypes; theory of ezoteric synchronicity.

Iconic figure of the american jazz Armstrong, Louis (New Orleans-USA, 4 August 1901 - Corona-USA, 6 July 1971) was born in a needy family, and grew to the heights of jazz and became Satchmo of his fans. He passed away and left a great oeuvre to us
Quite early in his childhood, Louis regularly missed school to earn money for family basic livelihood. Besides singing in the streets he also undertook duties at a rich family. At age 11 due to an illicit use of gun at New Year's Eve time, he was punished for staying in a home of boys. It was this time of his life when he became acquainted with basics in music and that is why he became aware of his talents and his career in future.
After two years he left the home of 'penitence', and started to learn music from the Great Olds. The knowledge he gained was immediately transferred into practice when joining diverse music bands. By the end of the 1910s he became a fancied jazz musician of New Orleans. In 1922 his activity was put to Chicago (Oliver's Creole Jazz Band) where his talented skills provided him with admiring audience of great number. In 1924 his unique musician lifeline continued in New York for further maturation, finally concluding in the assembly of the first jazz big band (Henderson's big band). In 1930 Los Angeles became a new stage for trying his talents (New Cotton Club). By the end of 1931 he returned to Chicago. The 1930s were spent with world tours and movie making (Hollywood). Besides studio recordings in the 1950s, world tours were also accomplished.
Among his merits:
*The first afro-american artist accepted and highly appreciated without prejudice.
* "What A Wonderful World" (first release in 1967)
* Posthumus Grammy Lifetime Achievement Award (1972)

Among Hungarian Nobel laureates it is physiologist-biochemist Szent-Györgyi, Albert (Budapest, 16 September 1893 - Woods Hole, 22 October 1986) who earned the prize with research work run in his homeland.
In 1911, after secondary school studies at the Lónyay street Reformed Grammar School, he became student at the University of Budapest (today ELTE) Faculty of Medicine. In 1914 his university period was halted by military front service. There he had been wounded, hence, he could return to studies at the university from where he graduated in 1917.
Advanced studies, professional milestones:
September 1918 - August 1920: University of Bratislava/Institute of Pharmacology
Few weeks in 1919: Charles University/Prague (Physiology)
December 1919: University of Berlin (Biochemistry)
1922-1923: Leyden University (Pharmacology)
1922-1925: Groningen University (Cellular respiration, Biological oxydation, Citric acid cycle)
1926-1928: Research fellowship - 
Cambridge/UK (hexuronic acid C6H8O6  isolated from adrenal gland tissue, from cabbages, from oranges)
October 1930: Professor at the Medical Chemistry Institute of Szeged University (Hungary)
March 1932: hexuronic acid = vitamin C 
(meeting of the Budapest Royal Medical Society)
1933: vitamin C = ascorbic acid (antiscorbutic substance), further, vitamin P isolated from paprika (Bioflavonoids)
1937: Physiology-Medicine Nobel Prize (Biological oxydation, catalists, vitamin C, Fumaric acid)
1938-1939: University of Liége (Belgium)
1940-1941: Rector of Szeged University (Hungary)
1939-1943: in collaboration with
Banga, Ilona and Straub, F. Brunó recognition of actin protein, actomyosin complex and their role (with ATP involved) in muscle contraction  
1947: emigration to America, studies on muscle movements, later turning to cancer research and the applicability of quantum mechanics in biology.

Bohr, Niels (Copenhagen-Denmark, 7 October 1885 - Copenhagen-Denmark, 18 November 1962) began university studies in 1903 with major subject physics at the Copenhagen University. He earned his Ph.D. in 1911 (> electron theory of metals). 
Professional landmarks:
England, Cavendish Laboratory (Cambridge). Bohr's cathode ray studies proved insufficient to call on J.J. Thomson's attention. However, upon a subsequent invitation of E. Rutherford he got again to England, for studies on atomic structure.
1913: publication on the research of atomic structure.
1914-1916: Victoria University (Manchester, UK), lecturer in physics.
1916-1962: Copenhagen University (Denmark), professor of theoretical physics, foundation of the Institute of Theoretical Physics at the university (1920).
1922: Nobel Prize (atomic structure, quantum theory)
During World War II he refuged to Sweden, later to England and joined the Manhattan Project (development of nuclear weapons). Following WW II he raised words against nuclear weapons and for peaceful utilization of nuclear energy.
1938-1962: President of the Royal Danish Academy of Sciences
1954: influential role in the foundation of the European Organization for Nuclear Research (CERN =
Conseil Européen pour la Recherche Nucléaire
Atomic structure: electrons have discrete energy and circulate in stable orbits around the atomic nucleus. Electrons have the option of jumping to another orbit (energy level).
*The jump of electrons from higher to lower energy levels is accompanied by emission of quantum of discrete energy.
*The complementarity principle: elementary components possess with wave and particle nature/behaviour, attributes complementary still simultaneously not analyzable. Say, elementary components are to be analyzed as of wave behaviour and are to be analyzed as of stream of particles behaviour. The two analytical approaches are alternates in application.

The theologian reformer of the 16th century Christianism Luther, Martin (German-Roman Empire/Eisleben in Saxony, 10 November 1483 - German-Roman Empire/ in Saxony on his way home, 16 February 1546) was grown up in a modest peasant family. His father also worked in ore mining and as such he had elevated thoughts about the future of his promising child. In 1501 Luther enrolled in the University of Erfurt and heading for lawyer profession chosen, he gained an M.A. degree in grammar, logic, rhetoric, metaphysics.
Still, the choice to become a lawyer was erased by a fearful summer storm (1505) since Luther had then vowed to be a monk.

In the beginning, in the monastery he could not find his place and the christian enlightenment either. At the age 27 he was a delegate at a Catholic Church Conference in Rome. There, his experiences related to immorality and corruption among priests (indulgence, "buy-off sins") catalyzed the accumulation of his disillusions toward Catholic Church and religious faith of that time.

After returning home, for sake of spiritual healing, he enrolled in the University of Wittenberg where after earning a doctorate he became professor of theology. Then, christian enlightenment was finally found by studying the Holy Bible. According to his recognition, spiritual salvation is to be reached by faith alone with no fearing God or the spirit paralyzed by dogmas.
It is already 500 years that Luther nailed a keynote paper listing his 95 theses on the gate of the university chapel at Wittenberg. Instead of debates and discussions, he was ordered by Church leaders to withdraw the theses. Since he had neglected the orders, in January 1521  Luther was excommunicated from the Roman Catholic Church. At the Diet of Worms (March 1521) Luther had neglected the orders as before, therefore, in May 1521 he was convicted for being a heretic.
He found shelter in the Wartburg Castle (Eisenach) and spent his time there with translating the New Testament into German for spreading God's words to people of everyday's.
Inspired by the supporting nobility and followers finally, in 1522 he founded the Lutheran (Evangelical) Church that enlarged time to time from than on
. This enlargement was not ceased during the German Peasant Revolt of 1524-1525 (Deutscher Bauernkrieg) as Luther stood by side of the nobility.
The 95 Theses

The french navigator and explorer Cartier, Jacques (Northwest Brittany/Saint-Malo, 31 December 1491 - ibidem, 1 September 1557) left us with not much details about his private life, however, more about his explorations. Skilled and experienced as navigator he led several sail routes to the then unknown American continent, specifically to the territories of present day Brazil.
In 1534 he happened to be introduced to Francis I, King of France. Upon introduction, Cartier was given the royal mandate of exploring the land of North America. That is, he was authorized to find new territories, islands with promising depots of gold and other treasures.
On 20 April 1534, Cartier sailed off with two ships and 
crew of 61 sailors to reach the far land and, they succeeded in 20 days. Their arrival equaled with the exploration of Newfoundland weast coast, the Prince Edward Island, the Anticosti Island and the Gulf of Saint Lawrence river.
The success in finding new lands had opened a new chapter in royal mandates. The second sailing route was performed by three ships and crew of 110 sailors.
Along Saint Lawrence river they headed for Quebec to set their base camp. They also reached the territory of Montréal. Due to the information obtained from the Iroquois controlling the territory, and, bearing in mind the promising depots of gold, silver, copper, and spices, Cartier tended to get ahead in west direction. However, the hard winter cut his advance across the frozen river. Besides, the communication with the Iroquois turned to less amicable. In spring, after sailing back home, Cartier could only report about the likelihood of treasure depots in far west territories expectedly crossed by a big river supposed to lead to Asia.
The Italian flare up of Spanish-French (Habsburg-Valois) wars postponed high costs explorations. That is why the third route started late in May 1541 with sailing off five ships. Instead of the aim to find East Passage to Asia, the third route was dedicated to raise on behalf of France, a permanent settlement along Saint Lawrence river. Extending this dedication, after some months, the king ordered a group of colonists to follow Cartier on his route of exploration.
Near to Quebec, treasures resembling to 'gold and diamond' were found, and this finding induced Cartier to leave base camp instead of waiting for the group of colonists. He sailed back to France for making fortune of the 'treasures' found. In France, unfortunately, he had to face the truth about the nature of his 'treasures', ordinary quartz crystals, iron pyrites. Later, similar to Cartier, the group of colonists also returned to France. Their return was speeded up by the first encounter with hard winter.
After all, since he left base camp and thus lost royal confidence, Cartier was not given any further mandate of exploration. Still, he is kept in memory by the explored territories for he named them (The Country of Canadas) and, provided France with legal support to the claim of maintaining land demand.
Outstanding figure in legal consolidation was the french navigator Champlain, Samuel (1574-1635) who, in 1608, founded present day 
Quebec City in New France (Canada).

>Actuality 2017


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